Giacomo Della Chiesa (1854-1922) was elected pope, taking the name Benedict XV. In the encyclical Ad beatissimi Apostolorum (1914) he set forth guidelines for the discussion of theological matters not regulated by declarations from the Holy See. In another, more noted encyclical, Spiritus Paraclitus (1921) he addressed the inerrancy and inspiration of Holy Scripture and its relationship with other kinds and sources of knowing. Spiritus Paraclitus reads in part: “As regards matters in which without harm to faith or discipline — in the absence of any authoritative intervention of the Apostolic See — there is room for divergent opinions, it is clearly the right of everyone to express and defend his own opinion. But in such discussions no expressions should be used which might constitute serious breaches of charity; let each one freely defend his own opinion, but let it be done with due moderation, so that no one should consider himself entitled to affix on those who merely do not agree with his ideas the stigma of disloyalty to the faith or to discipline” (DH 3625).